Electrical Properties of Semiconductors

It goes without saying that electrons rotate round the nucleus in specific circular orbits under the influence of nuclear forces which are the short range attractive forces. If the influence of electron is strong enough to conquer this force of attraction, it can be designated as conductors. If the energy of electrons, on the other hand, is least to overcome the nuclear short range forces, it is called as insulators. In simple words, the materials which reveal intermediate behavior in between insulators and conductors, and both are termed as semiconductors. Depending on their conducting properties, semiconductors can be classified into 2 types: Intrinsic semiconductors and Extrinsic semiconductors.

Intrinsic Semiconductors:

Basically electrons and holes are charge carriers present in semiconductors, holes as +vely charged and electrons being -vely charged. The unique characteristic property of intrinsic semiconductors is the possession neutralisation current. As a consequence of this current intrinsic semiconductor, they only have carrying capability of little current. This is to enhance its conducting properties that need to be modified in the case of intrinsic semiconductors. Doping is the property that enhances the conductivity of semiconductors. The amount of doping should be moderate. Extrinsic semiconductors are formed by intiating doping process.

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Extrinsic Semiconductors:

Extrinsic semiconductors present in an impure form. The impurities added belongs to 3rd and 5th group in the periodic table, the trivalent impurities are 3rd group elements such as aluminium, boron, gallium, indium and pentavalent impurities. For the 5th group elements are arsenic, phosphorous, antimony, bismuth. Germanium and Silicon semiconductors are tetravalent in nature. When phosphorous, the pentavelent impurity, is added to silicon, take note that 4 valence electrons of silicon form a covalent bond with 4 valence electrons of silicon, but one electron will lie free without any participation.

Therefore, adding a small amount of impurity, electrons are generated, thus these semiconductors are n-type extrinsic semiconductors. By adding trivalent impurities, such as boron to a semiconductor 3 valence electrons of silicon form covalent bond with 3 valence electrons of impure atom. While one electron is electron deficient, the semiconductor completes its bonding process by stealing an electron from its neighboring atom. By adding trivalent impurity, there is a vacancy created. Thus, these impurities are known as acceptor impurities, while the semiconductors are called as p-type semiconductors.

Currents In Semiconductors

The current in semiconductors is usually carried by holes and electrons. The currents in semiconductors are of two types depending on the application of the external field. The first one is the drift current, and the second one is the diffusion current.

Applications

The first application is the crucial role of semiconducting materials to play a pivotal role in electronic field due to its peculiar property of temperature coefficient of resistivity. The second one is the semiconducting principle that can be utilised in the form of voltage regulator in zener diode where forward bias and reverse biasing action takes place. The third application is the fact that the semiconductors play a key role as an electronic device in the industry. Last but not the least, the semiconducting materials are used by Photodiodes and LED’s as display devices.

Best Practices for Fabless Semiconductor Specialists

Today, every electronic device needs a semiconductor support. If you are not familiar with semiconductor, just imagine the importance of your mobile phones and tablets. These gadgets cannot serve their purpose without semiconductor because they cannot function the way they should be. The increasing demand of a semiconductor means the increased value of a semiconductor specialist. This brings a lot of integrity and responsibility issues on your part if you choose to be one. To maintain the integrity of the market and to meet the demands, the semiconductor manufacturers should follow the best practices.

Importance of the Best Practices

With the best practices, it means choosing the most effective processes and methods in order to generate the desired results. An organization that employs the best practices will operate more effectively over time. If you want to attain the most satisfactory outcomes and stable results, you should follow the best practices. While performing the best practices, you need to review and analyze each situation deeply and with experimental aspects of trial and error. In most cases, the trial and error may be a waste of time and money, but it will be rewarding in the future. For semiconductor specialists, it is very important to follow the best practices so that they can provide the best outcome to the customers. The steps involved in the method include several components which give the best results.

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The steps are broken down into various sub steps which are:

  • Benefits of practices.
  • Evaluation of current business practices.
  • Analysis of costs occurring while doing the practices.
  • Benchmark with a quantitative analysis method to measure the practices.
  • Choice of the best practices.
  • Review of current practices.

It is very important to note here that the best practices are also under constant review and revision. To meet the varying market demand, there has to be amendments in the best practices so that they can give the most effective and satisfying results. For the semiconductor specialists, wafer size, technology, automation level, manufacturing, outsourcing and packaging are the major areas which require changes from time to time. Among these, technology will definitely change very fast and so when talking about the semiconductor industry practicing fabless manufacturing it has become a very important aspect.

In the fabless engineering process, there are chains of the best practices which, if performed in continuation, it can give you nothing but the best results with the least efforts and in the minimal time. If you are also dealing in fabless engineering, you must follow the best practices which can make your work more progressive and streamlined. If you need any information on this technology, you have several resources online.

Semiconductor is a complex subject in nature. Most people think that one has to be an engineer or an experienced electrician to understand semiconductor. Nobody said that it is going to be an easy step, but with the best practices, you will be able to follow the quality processes. Make use of the best practices in your organization and maintain the operations effectively!

All About Semiconductors

Semiconductor, the magic word in the world of technology is composed of 2 words, the Semi and the Conductor. The term Semi means incomplete, while the term conductor means there is something. This something is related to conducting electricity. In this modern era, all people are familiar with electricities and how they work. Of course, they are present everywhere because they run numerous appliances, both in your home or workplace. Examples of the appliances are TV, Freeze, Bulb, and Microwave Oven.

In short, the current must pass through the wires for the electricity to reach all these useful appliances. Therefore, when you say “conductor,” it means nothing but a material who has the ability to conduct electricity. To some extent, semiconductors conduct electricity, less than the conductors.

But How Much Do You Think?

There are a lot of factors to consider, such as the type of material used, its size and mixture. A semiconductor is a type of material that has transitional conductivity between an insulator and a conductor. This means that it has a very distinctive physical properties, that can be found everywhere in between a conductor like an insulator and aluminum. There is a process called doping involved in semiconductor. It is about a small amount of impurities being added to pure semiconductors leading to huge changes in material’s conductivity. Silicon, one of the most popular example, is the basic material used in the germanium and integrated circuit.

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Why Are Semicondcutors Important?

You should first comprehend the difference between electronics and electricity to understand the importance of semiconductors. Both are concerned with transferring, generating, and making use of electrical energy. The major difference is that, electricity is concerned with the use of electrical energy in power uses of light, heat, and motors. The electronics, on the other hand, is concerned with communications and power control applications such as electric motor speed control, radio and electronic thermostats. As for the engineering importance, it results from the fact that semiconductors can be insulators and conductors at the same time.

Since varying conditions such as impurity and temperature content can easily modify their conductivity, semiconductors are important. The combination of different types of semiconductor generates devices with electrical properties, which enable controls of electrical signals. Semiconductors are used in the manufacture of integrated circuits and electronic devices. It goes without saying that people nowadays cannot imagine living life without electronic devices. Such devices give us enjoyment.

How Do Semiconductors Work?

Silicon is far the most useful element in semiconductor since most chips and devices are created within. The common expressions like “Silicon Valley” come from this term. Another one is the metal This element tends to be good electric conductors since they have “free electrons” that can easily move between atoms, and involves the flow of electrons. It is important to understand that while the silicon crystals look similarly with metallic, they are not a type nor a form of metals.

Semiconductor may sound technical, but its applications are very common. Thus, knowing all about semiconductors would make you appreciate the beauty of electricity.